Chromium(VI) / Chromium(III)

cromo juguetes

Chromium occurs in the environment largely in two forms: trivalent chromium (Cr(III)), which is an essential human nutrient, and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which is the most toxic form of the element. Hence, hexavalent chromium is regulated in different areas. The chemical requirements of the Toy Safety Directive 2009/487/EC entered in force on July 2013 and all toys placed on the EU market must comply with these new and revised chemical requirements. And more recently, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) adopted a hexavalent chromium maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water standard of 10 mg/L that became effective on July 1st, 2014.

A common problem with chromium speciation are the well-known bi-directional interconversions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) that can occur during sample preparation, as a result, the determined Cr(VI) and/or Cr(III) concentrations may not truly represent what was in the original sample. Isotope dilution is a well-known analytical technique based on the measurement of isotope ratios in amples where their isotopic composition has been altered by the addition of a known amount of an sotopically enriched element. The addition of the isotopically enriched species to the sample allows to correct for and measure interconversions providing accurate determinations of Cr(VI) concentrations in the initial sample.

Reference Species Isotope Enrichment (%) Concentration (ug/g) Volume (ml)
Cr50(III).100.025 Cr(III) 50 >90 100 25
Cr50(III).100.100 Cr(III) 50 >90 100 100
Cr50(VI).100.025 Cr(VI) 50 >90 100 25
Cr50(VI).100.100 Cr(VI) 50 >90 100 100
Cr53(III).100.025 Cr(III) 53 >90 100 25
Cr53(III).100.100 Cr(III) 53 >90 100 100
Cr53(VI).100.025 Cr(VI) 53 >90 100 25
Cr53(VI).100.100 Cr(VI) 53 >90 100 100
IES-Cr(VI/III)-KIT1.100.025 Cr(VI)
Cr(III)
50
53
>90
>90
100
100
25
25
IES-Cr(VI/III)-KIT1.100.100 Cr(VI)
Cr(III)
50
53
>90
>90
100
100
100
100
IES-Cr(VI/III)-KIT2.100.025 Cr(VI)
Cr(III)
53
50
>90
>90
100
100
25
25
IES-Cr(VI/III)-KIT2.100.100 Cr(VI)
Cr(III)
53
50
>90
>90
100
100
100
100
IES-Cr(VI/III)-KIT3.100.025 Cr(VI)
Cr(III)
50
50
>90
>90
100
100
25
25
IES-Cr(VI/III)-KIT3.100.100 Cr(VI)
Cr(III)
50
50
>90
>90
100
100
100
100
IES-Cr(VI/III)-KIT4.100.025 Cr(VI)
Cr(III)
53
53
>90
>90
100
100
25
25
IES-Cr(VI/III)-KIT4.100.100 Cr(VI)
Cr(III)
53
53
>90
>90
100
100
100
100

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